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  • 当前位置:首页 » ACCA/CAT » 备考辅导 » 正文

    ACCA《F4公司法与商法》精选讲义第一章(2)


    时间:2015-10-29 来源:ACCA/CAT 浏览次数:248  【华夏培训网:中国教育培训第一门户

      Session 2 Sources of data  Main contents:  1. Types of data  2. Secondary data  3. Sampling methods  2.1

      Session 2 Sources of data

      Main contents:

      1. Types of data

      2. Secondary data

      3. Sampling methods

      2.1 Types of data

      Data can be classified as follows:

      (a)Primary and secondary data

      Primary data – are data collected especially for a specific purpose.

      Secondary data – are data which have been collected elsewhere, for some

      other purposes, but which can be used or adapted for the

      survey being conducted.

      (b)Discrete and continuous data

      Discrete data – are data which can only be taken on a finite or countable

      number of values within a given range.

      Continuous data – are data which can take on any value.

      (c )Sample and population data

      Sample data – are data arising as a result of investigating a sample

      Population data – are data arising as a result of investigating the population.

      2.2 Secondary data

      The main sources of secondary data are: governments; banks; newspaper; trade journals; information bureau; consultancies; libraries and information services.

      - It is essential to believe that the secondary data used is accurate and reliable.

      2.3 Sampling methods

      Data are often collected from a sample rather than from a population. If the whole population is examined, the survey is called a census.

      There are two types of sampling methods:

      Probability sampling method – is a sampling method in which there is a known chance of each member of the population appearing in the sample.

      - Random

      - Stratified random

      - Systematic

      - Multistage

      - Cluster

      If random sampling is used, it is necessary to construct a sampling frame.

      A sampling frame should have following characteristics

      - completeness

      - accuracy

      - adequacy

      - up to dateness

      - convenience

      - non-duplication

      Non probability sampling method – is a sampling method in which the chance of each member of the population appearing in the sample is not know, i.e. quota sampling.

      Example 1:

      The following statements relate to which different types of data

      (i). Secondary data are data collected especially for a specific purpose

      (ii). Discrete data can take on any value.

      (iii) Qualitative data are data that cannot be measured

      (iv). Population data are data arising as a result of investigating a group of people or

      Objects.

      Which of the statements are true?

      A.(i)and(ii)only

      B.(ii)and(iii)only

      C.(ii)and(iv)only

      D.(iii)and(iv)only

      Solution is D

      It is primary data that is collected for a specific purpose so (i) is false. Continuous data can take on any value so (ii) is false. Both (iii) and (iv) are true.

      Example 2:

      Which of the following statements are not true?

      I If a sample is selected using random sampling, it will be free from bias.

      II A sampling frame is a numbered list of all items in a sample.

      III In cluster sampling there is very little potential for bias.

      IV In quota sampling, investigators are told to interview all the people they meet

      Up to a certain quota.

      A I, II, III and IV

      B I, II and III

      C II and III

      D II only

      Solution is C

      A sampling frame is a numbered list of all items in a population (not a sample)

      Cluster sampling involves selecting one definable subsection of the population which therefore makes the potential for bias considerable.

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